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Scientific Research: Basic-Theoretical, Applied Practical Research, A to Z

© Donald Reinhardt,2010

Scientific Method Studies, Foundations and Applications © Donald Reinhardt,2011

Science is an organized body of knowledge that uses the scientific method to obtain data and information.
Research and experiments are done to obtain information (data).  Each science uses its own special and distinct  tools, instruments, and techniques, but each and every science uses the scientific method. Here at Science Super School the scientific method of thinking, questioning, logic and connections is emphasized. Astronomers may use telescopes, and some microbiologists use microscopes and Petri dishes, but they all think the scientific method way. That is how to become  a scientist – learn the scientific method, and use the method, and remember that "practice makes perfect." The scientific method studies produces results that are the foundations and basic information of the science. In Chemistry, the nature of the atom and a compound and the bonds that hold atoms together are basic, core data. How to make new useful compounds such as glues, paints, or drugs from this core knowledge is an application of the basic data.

Scientific Method Research – Basic and Applied, Electricity and Heart Illustrations

Basic research in science is experimentation for the purpose of knowing and simply understanding principles and foundations — such as, what is the nature of an electron, and how do electrons behave, and what are electrons' properties? 

Applied research in science seeks to understand how electricity can be used to make a motor, a machine like a radio, television, cell phone, or even a pacemaker for the heart. 

A basic research scientist determines, for example, how and why the heart beats in a defined and rhythmic way; an applied scientist invents a device such as a pacemaker to correct an electrical and rhythm problem of the heart. Basic research finds and understands something essential and fundamental, applied research tries to make something useful happen with that essential knowledge.

Doctors, nurses and allied health personnel, in general, can be thought of as applied research scientists. They use biology, chemistry and physics to understand normal and abnormal conditions of the human body. They use stethoscopes, otoscopes, X-rays, MRIs, blood pressure devices, urinanalysis, blood tests,  and many other medical tools and procedures to diagnose and evaluate their patients. Doctors use instruments, procedures and operations to correct abnormal or harmful tissue and organ conditions. Surgeons, doctors who do medical operations, remove, add or re-arrange parts in the body that are diseased or damaged. Artificial knees, hips, bones,  and transplants of kidneys, hearts and lungs are just a few of the many medical wonders of modern medicine.
Doctors, Nurses, Allied Health Personnel are Applied Scientists of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics
Scientific Method, Involves Logical Thinking and Making Connections

Connections are important in thinking. Thinking that involves linking and inter-relating thoughts, connecting ideas and concepts one to another, all this helps to make remembering easier. Scientists who study and investigate the eye can learn of the biology, chemistry and physics of the eye separately, or as a combination. The scientific method involves logical and critical thinking. Whenever there are combined and connected scientific studies, then the learning that happens is usually more memorable, enlightening and realistic in so many ways, and that is good. Scientists who make these connections provide new understanding and better insights. This can lead to new experiments that result in important new scientific discoveries.  Some science studies of the human eye will be used later on to illustrate those connecting points. But before going to study the eye, think about a few other interesting aspects of science and the scientific method.

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All the Written Material within Site is Copyrighted 2010 and Owned by Dr. Donald Reinhardt, and this original material is protected legally by this copyright notice and by the Digital Millennium Act. None of this original material may be copied or reproduced without the expressed written consent of the author. 

Donald Reinhardt is a Consultant in Medical and Industrial Microbiology and a Freelance Science writer. He is available for specific assignments for those who are interested – by contacting Other questions related to this teaching site should be directed to