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Eye Anatomy 14 Facts to Know and Understand

© Donald Reinhardt,2010

Human Eye Anatomy Details, 14 Facts to See and Remember

© Donald Reinhardt,2010Picture 
Human eye anatomy is reviewed, defined and summarized here.

1. Cornea, outermost anterior clear area of the eye that focuses light rays; cornea connects with the sclera.
2. Sclera, tough white covering of eye, that provides protection, strength and connects to clear front cornea.
3. Anterior eye chamber, between the cornea and the lens, contains circulating nutrients and fluid for the eye.
4. Choroid, layer beneath the sclera that connects to the ciliary body and the iris.
5. Ciliary Body, responds to light intensity, activates ciliary muscles and dilates the iris (opens) in dim light, and constricts the iris in bright light.
6. Iris, area of the eye that functions like a camera lens f stop opening; 
7. Pupil is the actual opening in the iris that permits passage of light toward the lens. 
8. Lens, thickened, clear focusing region of the eye; works together with cornea to focus image on  the retina.
9. Vitreous chamber, jelly-like clear substance that fills a majority of the eyeball, and gives it fullness and substance.
10. Retina, the tissue region at the back of the eye that contains ganglia, bipolar cells, rods and cone cells.  
11. Optic Nerve, carries electrical impulses from ganglia to the vision center of the brain.
12. Retinal central artery, supplies oxygenated blood and dissolved nutrients to the retina.
13. Retinal central vein, removes deoxygenated blood and wastes from the retina.
14. Eye muscles and ligaments. 6 eye muscles steady the eyes, and enable the eyes to move left and right, and contract or expand the lens.
Further insights are provided for 3 retinal diseases as well as aspects of Human Eye Anatomy and Functions.

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Donald Reinhardt is a Consultant in Medical and Industrial Microbiology and a Freelance Science writer. He is available for specific assignments for those who are interested – by contacting Other questions related to this teaching site should be directed to