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Clear Basic Science Fair Fun-Fact Project Guide: Science Experimental Methods & Development
© Donald Reinhardt, December 3, 2013
Science Fairs are interesting, exciting and fun.
Photo Credit: U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Chenzira Mallory at Lajes Field Department of Defense Dependants School

Science fairs and science projects are good and challenging events. Science projects which are successful always require: good organization, critical and logical thinking, a command of the important facts, the ability to design experiments and to collect, order, present, summarize, discuss and answer questions about the experimental data. This Clear Basic Science Fair Fun-Fact Project Guide at www. is presented here with this link and can help anyone achieve a successful fun and useful science project.


Chemistry Basic Facts & Insights into the Wonderful World of Vitamins and Minerals
© Donald Reinhardt, Sept 10, 2013
Vitamins and minerals are essential for life and healthy living. Here you will find a list which introduces you to the standard composition and basic functions of complete and healthy vitamin and mineral-element formulas. This brief introduction will enable you to understand some basic science and chemistry of vitamins and minerals.

Vitamin and Mineral Pills, Photo Credit:


Chemical Reaction Types and Kinds – Concise Review with Examples Explanations
© Donald Reinhardt, November 4, 2013. Updated Nov. 5, 2013.
The world of chemistry is exciting and interesting. Elements and the atoms of those elements are the building blocks of our universe and the physical worlds around us. Chemistry helps us understand how atoms of various elements act and interact. Here you will see and understand the basic types of chemical reactions which make, form and drive the chemical world. Discover more, click here.
Diagram of Photoelectric cell (PEC). The chemical decomposition reaction is producing oxygen and hydrogen gas from the breakdown of water. The energy that drives the reaction is provided by light. Photo Credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, U.S.


 Basic Chemical Reactions and Types - A Self-Test and Review of Basic Chemical Reaction Concepts
© Donald Reinhardt, January 13, 2015  

Diagram of Photoelectric cell (PEC). The chemical decomposition reaction is producing oxygen and hydrogen gas from the breakdown of water. The energy that drives the reaction is provided by light. Photo Credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, U.S.


Chemistry Wonder World: Thirty VIP inorganic and organic chemical molecules & compounds to know and understand
© Donald Reinhardt, October 23, 2013
The world of chemistry is filled with important and less important chemical compounds. This list and grouping of thirty (30) important compounds will frame the bigger picture of the important compounds of the chemical world and show you why they are so important. Read more…
Glucose,  the most common 6-carbon sugar. Diagram Credit: Pub Med, NIH


Chemistry Wonder World – Exam 1 on Elements Atoms Ions Chemical Bonds pH Water 
© Donald Reinhardt, October 9, 2013
These questions will help you review and understand some basic information for Introductory Chemistry. Following below are links to articles which provide the good, basic information useful for answering these questions. Get ready to understand, know and succeed in chemistry. Go to the review links and exam by clicking here now.


Chemistry Wonder World – Exam 2 on Important Molecules, Compounds and Chemical Reactions
© Donald Reinhardt, Nov. 22, 2013 
Here are 65 multiple-ohoice exam questions which are related to these two study modules at www.sciencesuperschool:
These 65 questions help to serve as a guide to what you have learned as you test yourself and your chemistry knowledge of molecules, compounds and chemical reactions. Click this link to  the questions.


Wonder World of Protons and Medical Therapy – Accelerators and Proton Cancer Treatment
© Donald Reinhardt, Sept 26, 2013
It’s is all about the use of the hydrogen nucleus, a simple, single proton. Channel those protons in a magnetic device called an accelerator (cyclotron) and spin those protons around and around like a NASCAR track. Attain higher and higher speeds and then aim and shoot those protons at a specific target and –WOW!–you have an effective way to treat cancers – narrowly, specifically and effectively – with usually less damage than to surrounding, normal, healthy tissue. That’s just terrific when it is done well and doctors and physicists are making proton therapy work for their cancer patients. See and learn more here and now.
CT scan of the human brain of a patient formed from a series of dozens of CT scans grouped together to give this 3-D brain image. Note the yellow proton beam aperture which surrounds the red tumor region. Eye region and optic nerves in blue-green color are clearly evident. 
Photo Credit: National Cancer Institute (NCI)


Chemistry Wonder World – Atomic Structure, Electron Shells & Chemical Bonds
© Donald Reinhardt, Sept 22, 2013
The lightest element is hydrogen (H, atomic weight of 1) and one of the heaviest elements of the 92 natural elements is uranium (U, atomic weight 235). Here see and understand the basic structure and function of atoms, their unique properties and the kinds of bonds and compounds that are possible in the wonder world of chemistry.
The full article and study module is here.
Hydrogen Atom with 1 proton and 1 electron shown in a Bohr Model. Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons.


Chemistry Wonder World Q & A - 2. Chemical Bonds of Molecules – Kinds and Functions
© Donald Reinhardt, Sept 18, 2013
When the simple atoms of various elements combine, they form a compound which has distinct properties. Water (H2O), table salt (NaCl), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sugar (C6H12O6), carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are distinct and different compounds that are formed and created as a result of chemical bonding of atoms. Explore molecules and chemical bonds here.


Chemistry Wonder World Q & A – 1. Matter, Molecules, Elements, Ions, Compounds
© Donald Reinhardt, Sept 12, 2013

Chemistry Wonder World Q & A – 1. Matter, Molecules, Elements, Ions, Compounds

We live in a material world of chemical things and chemistry. Chemistry as a science helps us to understand ourselves and the world around us. Here we will explore the definitions and questions and answers of matter, elements, atoms, bonds, mixtures, solutions, pH, and chemical reactions.
Water Molecule. Diagram of Oxygen bonded to two hydrogen atoms. Note the atomic size differences between oxygen and hydrogen. Note also the position of the nucleus with protons and neutrons and   outer band of electrons.



Buoyancy Helium-Balloon Photo Sequence Experiment Analyses, Questions and Answers – A CSI Study at

 © Donald Reinhardt, May 4, 2013
A series of photos is shown here of some balloons and you as a good scientific investigator are asked to evaluate, analyze, take written notes and comment on what you see and what you believe is happening in each numbered photo or photo number comparisons. When finished, compare your findings with those of the senior investigative CSI agent. This exercise requires critcal thinking and evaluation. So, have fun, learn and enjoy – it is another great day at CSI Let the balloons fly! Follow the photos and the balloons here --->
Photo 1 of Helium-Filled Balloons Photo Experiment. © Donald Reinhardt, 2013


Buoyancy Helium-Balloon Experiments –Fun Scientific Method

© Donald Reinhardt, March 4, 2013

Helium-filled balloon experiments reveal buoyancy principles, facts and provide some simple math fun– read about virtual and real buoyancy experiments here >.
Helium Balloon with and without added weight. First photo: Balloon pressed against ceiling. Second photo: Equilibrium of balloon with balanced upward and downward forces. Forces are equal and balloon seems to walk with air currents. Photo Credit: © Donald Reinhardt, 2013


Buoyancy: Helium-Balloon Critical-Thinking Questions with Linked Answers
© Donald Reinhardt, March 7, 2013
Find here useful, fun, educational buoyancy ideas and questions which promote creative, critical and imaginative science thinking. There are no trick questions here – just basic, clear ideas and experiments to think about. When you are finished review the answers by going to the link provided and check out the links to other buoyancy articles here to improve your understanding of buoyancy in air and water.


Vaccines-Vaccinations: Issues Debates Risks Dangers
© Donald Reinhardt, February 22, 2013
Vaccines can prevent and control the potential spread of dangerous infectious diseases which may be injurious or life-threatening. Those are important and noble goals, but vaccines also can be dangerous as discussed here
Vaccine for Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus Label from Vial. Photo Credit: NLM of NIH
Hyphae Pseudohyphae Spores Buds – A Real World of Molds & Yeasts

© Donald Reinhardt, January 24, 2013

They are all around us in the air, soil and water – some reside on our skin and inside our body – who are they? They are the fungi – the molds and the yeasts – and they are citizens of the microbial world. Learn more about molds and yeasts and what they do right here.
Aspergillus mold, a fungus. Photo Credit: Centers for Disease Control, U.S.
Candida albicans, a yeast which buds. Photo Credit: Centers for Disease Control, U.S.


Aspergillus Moldy Vials of Steroid (Methylprednisolone) Responsible for Meningitis Epidemic 2012
© Donald Reinhardt, October 5, 2012; updated Oct 6-31; Nov 1,8,17,27, Dec 18, 28, 2012; Feb 6, 21, 2013, March 5, 25 2013, May 5, June 23 2013, Sep 8, Oct 23, 2013 
The mold meningitis epidemic caused by a contaminated, injectable steroid (methylprednisolone) has involved 751 patient infections, 64 deaths from 20 states reporting. However, the number of new cases and deaths is slowing dramatically as the epidemic approaches its seventh full month. The steroid product, compounded by the New England Compounding Center (Framingham, Massachusetts), has been linked to this rapidly-expanding epidemic of mold spinal infections (meningitis). There are 751 patients with 64 deaths in these 20 states: Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. The top three states with the most cases of fungal meningitis are: Michigan (243), Tennessee (145), and Indiana (79). These 3 states account for almost half of all the known fingal meningitis cases.
Two molds have been implicated in the mold meningitis diagnosis: Exserohilum and Aspergillus fumigatus. Exserohilum has been the mold involved in almost all the cases. Both molds are common saprophyes which live in damp or moist environments and feed on simple environmental materials such as cellulose (paper and cardboard), starch or simple sugars. The fungi probably entered the vials during compounding and filling. These fungi were likely living contaminants in the compounding facility and they possibly grew and multiplied at one or more places in this environment. The exact source of these molds has not been determined at this time. These two fungus contaminants obviously survived in the sealed vials and were later injected with the steroid during therapy for spinal inflammation and pain. This is an expanding epidemic with an incubation period for the infection of a few days to over a month to six weeks. New cases should continue to accumulate into October, 2013 and possibly end in November and December, 2013. Thousands of injections were given prior to the recall of the contaminated prednisilone and almost 14,000 vials were shipped to 23 states. Several patients have suffered strokes during their infections.
 Aspergillus fumigatus, mold hyphae (filaments) and conidia (spores) stained blue. Photo Credit: NIH, U.S                                                                
Exserohilum mold isolated from 10 different meningitis cases. Photo credit: Centers for Disease Control, U.S.


Science Facts Tests for Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas

© Donald Reinhardt,2010. Updated, October 10, 2012.
This is a fun, science-holiday quiz for parents and kids or anyone who likes science. Thirty or more questions are provided for each holiday. See how well you know this science. Read more here>
Snowflake Details and Variations


Salmonella Peanut Butter and Almond Butter 2012 Epidemic (S. Bredeney)
© Donald Reinhardt, October 3, 2012
Salmonella is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastrointestinal (GI) illness and usually infects humans via contaminated food or fluids. Salmonella is a common intestinal organism of animals and the bacteria can be readily transmitted among animals of many types and the environment. This epidemic to date has affected 30 people in 19 states and has been traced to contaminated peanut butter. More follows here.
Salmonella bacterium with flagella. Photo Credit: U.S. Agric. Res. Service
Sponge science and math lab workshop – absorption density and mass
© Donald Reinhardt, September 25, 2012
Household sponges are either real or artificial (manufactured) sponges and anyone can do simple, easy, virtual or real science experiments to understand absorption, buoyancy, density, volume and mass. So let’s do some sponge science here and now.
True sponges absorb water. Here one sponge does and three polyfoams do not.                  Photo credit and copyright: Donald Reinhardt
Buoyancy: Definition-Facts-Math-Fun Science SuperSchool Experiment
© Donald Reinhardt, September 18, 2012
Buoyancy is the upward force of gas or a liquid that lifts an object and seems to decrease its weight. Buoyancy was discovered by Archimedes in the third century BC and is a principle of physics to know, learn and experiment with. Learn about buoyancy and do some buoyancy experiments here and now.
 Diagram Below: Buoyancy or the upward force of hot air in this balloon which causes it to rise as the heated air enters the balloon.When the balloon is rising, it is displacing more surrounding air mass than the whole mass of the balloon. The upward force of buoyancy is greater than the downward forces of air and gravity. If the air cools, the balloon will descend. The balloon begins to descend when the mass of air it displaces is less than the total mass of the balloon. This means that the downward force of air and gravity is greater than the upward force of the balloon. If all the air leaves the balloon, it crashes to the ground because the force of buoyancy is lost. The arrows indicate the sideward, upward and downward pressures or forces on the balloon.
Photo Credit: U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission



Colorful Organic Chemistry:  Organic Dyes and Pigments Brighten Up the World

By Amy Sillup, September 4, 2012

The world of color is important to plants and animals and like sunlight unfolds into a visible spectrum of colors as seen in rainbows. Explore the organic chemistry of colors and dyes here and now.

 Colorful Blanket Flower with Organic Pigments of Color. Photo Credit: U.S. Army

 A Prism Separates the Different Colors and Displays the Rainbow of Colors from Red to Violet. Photo Credit: GFSC of NASA.

Colorful Chemistry: Pigments and Dyes Brighten Up the

     by Amy Sillup, September 2, 2012

 Humans love and can see many colors and color is important in the animal and plant world for survival,     seeking mates and even serving as a disguise or camouflage. Learn about the chemical world of color here.

Colorful Plate with Metal Pigment Color. Plate is Radioactive and All Three Geiger Counters Respond. Photo Credit: Richard Keyzer
The Big Bang Theory, Galaxies, Expanding Universes, God & Theology Concepts – Part 3
© Donald Reinhardt, March 26, 2012
Science and philosophy-theology can be at peace and not war with each other as long as each discipline of study recognizes the strengths as well as weaknesses of the other side. This means that the scholars of each discipline should apply the proper logical-critical-rational thinking that serves each well and correctly. Read more on how and why this can be true.

8th Anniversary Photos of Hubble Telescope Smash Hits, NASA

 Big Bang Theory, Galaxies, Expanding Universe Concepts, God & Theology – Part 2
©  Donald Reinhardt, March 25, 2012
"The Grand Design" by Hawking and Mlodinow discusses the big concepts of astronomy, physics, and the universe. Many interesting questions arise in the science-philosophy-theology debates on the ideas proposed in "The Grand Design" and more follows here.

8th Anniversary Photos of Hubble Telescope Smash Hits. Photo Credit: NASA



Big Bang Theory, Galaxies, Expanding Universes, God & Theology Concepts. Part 1

© Donald Reinhardt, March 22, 2012


Science and scientists use the scientific method and rational, logical thinking. Philosophy and theology scholars use logical, rational thinking alone. The scientific method of observation, hypothesis and experiments can used to obtain physical data and information from the real, tangible, material and measurable world. Our discussion continues here.


8th Anniversary Photos of Hubble Telescope Smash Hits, NASA


E. coli, Clover Sprouts, Intestinal Illness and Restaurants

© Donald Reinhardt, February 16, 2012

 The CDC reported on February 15, 2012 that a restaurant used E. coli-sprouted clover plants from two different lots of contaminated clover seeds. At least twelve people have been sickened by tainted sandwiches containing these sprouts.

Read more... 

CDC Map of E. coli Clover Sprout 5-State Epidemic as of 2/15/2012


The Thirty Year Tragedy of HIV and AIDS, 1981 to 2011, – Much is Known and Much More to Be Done
© Donald J. Reinhardt, June 5, 2011

The original MMWR CDC report of June 5, 1981 noted 5 clustered cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia in gay men and a disease known as Kaposi’s sarcoma.  On this day, June 5, 2011, 30 years later the intricate, complicated and long story of a retrovirus known as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is still being written.  HIV is one of the most secretive, elusive and difficult to treat disease agents ever discovered. Despite 30 intense years of scientific and medical investigation the disease continues to extract a great toll on the health and welfare of the world’s population. As reported by the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta AIDS is a global pandemic - 33 million people are dead with 600,000 of these as U.S. deaths. In the U.S., with a population of just over 300 million people, about 1.1 million people (about 1 out of every 300 people) are estimated to be infected and diseased.

Drug treatments for HIV infections and AIDS disease involve therapeutic chemical cocktails, i.e. chemical mixtures, to block and intercept viral messages and the biochemical machinery that are needed to make more viruses inside cells. Nevertheless, the virus tends to mutate rapidly and produce resistant viral strains that may escape these man-made chemical attempts at control. Finally, some thirty years later, no successful and useful, universal vaccine has been produced to protect against the disease.

Promises are given that the fight will continue and efforts will move forward to make sure that no patient gets left behind and untreated. The passage of these 30 years and the billions spent for treatment and research indicate historically records that science and medicine have gained a reasonable foothold and are fighting better than ever against HIV and the disease of AIDS. The full story of AIDS and HIV continues to unfold and the future total success against the virus and the disease is not guaranteed. Learn more about 30 years of HIV and AIDS by clicking here.
Epidemic of Vegetable-Food Bacterial Infections Strikes in Germany and Other Parts Europe May-June, 2011
© Donald Reinhardt, 2011
A very toxic, new strain (O104:H4) of Escherichia coli in Europe is causing intestinal infections with diarrhea and bleeding and systemic organ and tissue damage (especially of the kidneys). An initial report on June 5, 2011by Associated Press reported there have been about 22 deaths among over 2200 people who have eaten certain raw vegetables.
 Currently, as of June 18, 2011, the
Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Minstry of Germany reports that there are 39 dead, more than 3,517 sick with 839 with life-threatening kidney disease. This is a death to case ratio of about 1 % which means that 1 out of every 100 hundred ) O104:H4-infected people have died. The disease has spread to 12 European countries and 6 patients returned to the United States with this infection. The German ministry also reported that epidemiologists had clearly identified vegetable sprouts, particularly bean sprouts, as the cause of the epidemic. Other vegetable such as tomatoes, lettuce and cucumbers are not a problem and have been removed from the original dangerous, vegetables list. Sprouts that were E. coli-contaminated came from an organic farm in the region of Uelzen located between the northern cities of Hamburg and Hannover. A number of restaurants and markets were using sprouts provided from the suspect site. Many of the current patients and victims have eaten vegetables and become ill with the 0104:H4 strain of E- coli

 Escherichia coli, Gram Negative Bacterium. Photo Credit: CDC
Dangerous Strain of 0157:H7 E. coli Bacterium with Flagella, photo credit: CDC
Cell Phones and Brain Cancers in Humans, An Unresolved Mystery
© Donald Reinhardt,2011
A May 31, 2011 report from IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) of the World Health Organization (WHO) indicated that cell phones and their generated radiofrequencies should be considered as potentially hazardous to humans and
a potential cause of some cancers (gliomas) of the brain.

 ALS (Gehrig's Disease) 2011 Breakthrough Discoveries

© Donald Reinhardt,2011
Diseases are abnormal and harmful events that occur in living organisms. ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a very serious human disease that involves nerve degeneration, paralysis and eventually leads to death. Recently, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine scientists reported in Nature (August 21, 2011) and at the university web site a common, unifying cause of ALS based on improper processing of damaged nerve proteins. This discovery may help toward an eventual ALS disease cure. Read more here.

Two Nerve Cells Chemically Communicating by Neurotransmitters (e.g.dopamine, serotonin, acetylycholine) at a Synapse



All the Written Material within the Site is Original and Copyrighted 2011 and Written and Owned by Dr. Donald Reinhardt, © Donald Reinhardt,2011.

All of this original material is protected legally by this copyright notice and by the Digital Millennium Act. None of this original material may be copied or reproduced without the expressed written consent of the author. 

Donald Reinhardt is a Consultant in Medical and Industrial Microbiology and a Freelance Science writer. He is available for specific assignments for those who are interested – by contacting Other questions related to this teaching site should be directed to

Science for Everyone at ScienceSuperSchool — Scientific Methods, Facts, and Experiments and Science News and Debates
© Donald Reinhardt,2011
This science is seen and made real. Learn and develop good science seeing and thinking skills. Learn to be a better student of science at any age. Teach science, tutor science, and learn science with interesting photos, pictures, and diagrams that illuminate the different sciences. Explore and understand stories of scientists, science methods, laboratories, science and medical events, science instruments and experiments, and wonderful old and new science discoveries. Biology, chemistry, physics, the human body, distant stars of the universe, the worlds of atoms, whales, planets and solar systems, all these sciences and more, can be learned and are taught, right here.

Welcome to, a nice science home and school to visit, and have fun from time to time — see, read, think about, and learn science of the past, present, and the future.

Human Chromosomes, Photo of a Complete Set of Chromosomes (Karyotype) from a Male (see X & Y Chromosomes, Lower Right Corner) . Photo Credit: NIH

The Scientific Method, — Philosophy and Mission

This site is dedicated to the proper, wise and good use of the scientific method in all the basic sciences from Astronomy to Zoology. The scientific method is foundational and uses an ordered and logical approach to reach answers and possible solutions to problems of the material world. 

It is good, important and necessary to place ourselves as humans and the material universe in right and proper perspective. Whenever and wherever something is opinion, hypothesis, tenets of belief, or feelings, and not fully verifiable by scientific methods, that will be made clear. The scientific method, science "facts", science techniques and tools should not contradict anyone's faith or beliefs, regardless of one's opinions or beliefs. Scientific methods, science tools, science techniques and the laboratories of science can only explain the physical and measurable world.

The Scientific Method and Science, Beliefs and Philosophies

Science deals with the material world alone. Scientific methods cannot prove, or disprove, the existence of God — those discussions are truly for philosophy and religion. For committed believers or theists, they attest that the material world proclaims, affirms and points to the existence of an Intelligent and Loving Creator. For agnostics and atheists, science, random chance, Darwinism and the Theory of Evolution, with selection and survival of the fittest, are sufficient to satisfy the intellect. 

During life's journey, each person seeks the truth and, hopefully will find truth along the multiple and complex paths and roads of life. Here, some light is shed on various aspects of science, and here both the eyes and mind can be opened to the wonders of science and the scientific method.

This is a place for scientific learning and scientific interaction and, hopefully, a comfortable and iluminating domain for science facts, science self-instruction and science tutoring. 

Excellent learning occurs when there is a desire to learn, and where there are factual, accurate, and trustworthy knowledge sources available to students and teachers — this science site strives to be just that. 

Perfection is not claimed here — the attempt to attain that goal, however, is sought wih fervor.

Thanks again for being here.



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All the Written Material within this Site is Original, Copyrighted-protected and Owned by Dr. Donald Reinhardt. These
original materials are protected legally by this copyright notice and by the Digital Millennium Act. None of this original material may be copied or reproduced without the expressed written consent of the author. 

Donald Reinhardt is a Consultant in Medical and Industrial Microbiology and a Freelance Science writer. He is available for specific assignments for those who are interested – by contacting
Monarch Butterflies and Monarch Caterpillar
In Memory of Steve Jobs, Genius of Apple. Photo Credit: Apple